Author Archives: segemdonlee

Korean Translation of North Korea – A Broken Country

When Mr. Kim who work for Korean translation London, discusses what daily life is like in North Korea, it is important to first note that there are three North Koreas: the high officialdom, the Pyongyang elite, and everyone else.

korean to english translation by native korean translators
The first North Korea revolves around the sheltered, opulent life of high officials of the regime. These lucky few live in palatial residences, watch South Korean broadcasts and CNN on their big- screen LCD TVs, and travel to Japan and China frequently on shopping and tourist jaunts. While numbering only a few hundred people, these aristocrats live a very different life from their compatriots. They consist of a few dozen former Manchurian freedom fighters who helped Kim Il-sung build the state after 1945 and somehow outlived him, along with a few dozen more of Kim’s extended family members (including in- laws and their extended families) who control the different apparatuses of the state—the security services, the intelligence services, the army, and the senior ministries.

  • While they enjoy the same creature comforts as the average citizen of Seoul, these people spend their working lives overseeing one of the most brutal dictatorships the world has ever known. It’s their job to make sure that the trains run on time, that the mines run by prison labor keep producing, and that any enemies of the state they might find get executed.  Working underneath the aristocracy is the second North Korea: the clerks, party workers, and apparatchiks who live in Pyongyang according to our Korean translation services.
  • This city’s 3 million residents (those who don’t belong to the aforementioned regime ruling class) are the favored elite of the Korean Workers Party, the military, and the regime. That means, for the most part, that they and their families are spared from starvation. Some of them even get some of the few perks available in North Korea, including washing machines, foreign clothing, and even hair salon appointments. And then there is the rest of North Korea. Some 20 million strong, these people live in North Korea’s other cities (Nampo and Hamhung are the other two largest cities in North Korea, followed by a handful of small cities that would probably be called towns in most countries) and – the vast majority of them – in the rural villages that dot the landscape of modern North Korea.
  • The exact number of North Koreans isn’t known with confidence. The best we can do is to suggest a range of between 23 million and 25 million people. One of the reasons the numbers are unclear is because of the huge famine that rocked the country in 1996 and 1997. Starvation and misery were so extreme that some people ate grass to survive. Experts still disagree strongly over whether 250,000 people died (that’s the official government death toll) or if the number is as high as 2 million, as some nongovernmental organizations claim.

However many North Koreans there are, we do know a few things about them. Most of them live in concrete housing structures built in the 1960s and 1970s. Each house tends to hold an entire extended family, where everyone sleeps on straw mats on the floor, just as was done throughout the peninsula until rising standards of living caused the Southerners to flee to urban apartments throughout the 1960s and onward (where they often still sleep on futon- like mats on the floor).
Each house tends to have a walled- in courtyard, where dwell a few chickens and maybe, if the family is lucky, a pig. Outside the house, and in any other available scrap of land nearby, the family cultivates a garden that supplies them with much of their own vegetables and cabbage for kimchi, the fundamental Korean food made out of pickled cabbage and eaten as an appetizer and in combination with the main course, as well as a little extra that can be sold in the nearest market towns for pocket change.

Most families belong to the local agricultural collective, which manages the rice fields throughout the country. This centralized farming apparatus is essentially owned by the state and requires the citizens of the countryside to spend a few days each month helping out with such labor- intensive processes as planting, flooding, and harvesting. The last process is a national event, bringing all the local people as well as army conscripts and Pyongyang citizens out into the countryside for a massive rice harvesting extravaganza.

As Segem Consulting, a Korean translation company, knows well, all members of the collective get a small portion of the harvest, which they store for use throughout the year. In previous decades, almost every citizen’s food was provided by the state in the form of monthly rations, called the Public Distribution System. However, in recent years, private gardening has become so successful that most North Koreans get the bulk of their nutrition from their own gardens or from produce bought at the free enterprise markets. A recent trend in gardening is to cultivate plots of land in the mountains (most North Koreans live in fertile valleys ringed by uninhabited mountain ranges) with barley, corn, and millet. The average North Korean now gets a daily nutrition load of approximately 1,100 kilocalories, which is one- third of the average calorie load of the American citizen, and roughly comparable to the calories consumed by the average sub- Saharan African or Indian.

To some degree, North Korea has become a welfare state in the sense that close to a third of its food comes in the form of free aid given to it by the United States, Japan, South Korea, and China, with the latter being the largest provider of aid. This aid comes in the form of cereals (used mostly as livestock feed), some rice, and large shipments of nitrogenous fertilizers as our Korean translators expected.

A unique aspect of North Korean food consumption is the tradition of going into the mountains during the autumn to hunt for traditional foods such as wild mushrooms and roots. Although this practice magnified dramatically during the famines of the late 1990s, it is still commonly done, even by Pyongyang citizens, more as a cultural tradition (a tradition that used to be observed in the South also, before it was discontinued) than as a hunger-coping mechanism. Besides food, most North Koreans receive almost all of their necessities from the state. Each citizen is issued two outfits (a summer version and a winter version made out of thicker material) and a pair of shoes, all of which are made out of Vinalon, a polyvinyl material that was claimed to have been invented in North Korea. In fact, it was discovered by a Korean scientist who lived in Japan in the 1930s. Actually, one of our Korean translators came from Hamhung. The material, most of which is made in an enormous factory in Hamhung, is stiff, shiny, and notoriously uncomfortable for anyone who has worn anything else.

North Korean children attend school from an early age and most children complete some form of secondary school. The nation’s universities are the breeding ground for the elite of Pyongyang. Their most noticeable attribute is the perfectly equal number of females and males in the classes.

Although there are more than 1.2 million phone lines in North Korea, most of those are for strictly military or government office use. Cell phones were illegal until 2008, although many thousands of them were used illicitly in the northern part of the country, where callers roam on the nearby Chinese networks. In late 2008, the country’s first cell phone network was launched by the Egyptian company Orascom, and it quickly garnered some 6,000 subscribers. Again, most of those users belonged to the Pyongyang elite. Several million people have black- and- white television sets that are locally produced and hardwired for the country’s only channel – a twenty- four- hour news station, courtesy of the Korean Central Broadcasting Agency.

Korean Translation Examples

Below is an example table for Korean to English translation which can be useful when translating Korean names and addresses into English.

This table can be also used to learn Korean language or Korean alphabet as you can see Romonization of each Korean character.

ㄱ 가 ka 각 kak 간 kan 갈 kal 감 kam
갑 kap 갓 kat 강 kang 개 kae 객 kaek
거 keo 건 keon 걸 keol 검 keom 겁 keop
게 ke 겨 kyeo 격 kyeok 견 kyeon 결 kyeol
겸 kyeom 겹 kyeop 경 kyeong 계 kye 고 ko
곡 kok 곤 kon 골 kol 곳 kot 공 kong
곶 kot 과 kwa 곽 kwak 관 kwan 괄 kwal
광 kwang 괘 kwae 괴 koe 굉 koeng 교 kyo
구 ku 국 kuk 군 kun 굴 kul 굿 gut
궁 kung 권 kwon 궐 kwol 귀 kwi 규 kyu
균 kyun 귤 kyul 그 keu 극 keuk 근 keun
글 keul 금 keum 급 keup 긍 keung 기 ki
긴 kin 길 kil 김 kim 까 kka 깨 kkae
꼬 kko 꼭 kkok 꽃 kkot 꾀 kkoe 꾸 kku
꿈 kkum 끝 kkeut 끼 kki
ㄴ 나 na 낙 nak
난 nan 날 nal 남 nam 납 nap 낭 nang
내 nae 냉 naeng 너 neo 널 neol 네 ne
녀 nyeo 녁 nyeok 년 nyeon 념 nyeom 녕 nyeong
노 no 녹 nok 논 non 놀 nol 농 nong
뇌 noe 누 nu 눈 nun 눌 nul 느 neu
늑 neuk 늠 neum 능 neung 늬 nui 니 ni
닉 nik 닌 nin 닐 nil 님 nim
ㄷ 다 da
단 dan 달 dal 담 dam 답 dap 당 dang
대 dae 댁 daek 더 deo 덕 deok 도 do
독 dok 돈 don 돌 dol 동 dong 돼 dwae
되 doe 된 doen 두 du 둑 duk 둔 dun
뒤 dwi 드 deu 득 deuk 들 deul 등 deung
디 di 따 tta 땅 ttang 때 ttae 또 tto
뚜 ttu 뚝 ttuk 뜨 tteu 띠 tti
ㄹ 라 ra
락 rak 란 ran 람 ram 랑 rang 래 rae
랭 raeng 량 ryang 렁 reong 레 re 려 ryeo
력 ryeok 련 ryeon 렬 ryeol 렴 ryeom 렵 ryeop
령 ryeong 례 rye 로 ro 록 rok 론 ron
롱 rong 뢰 roe 료 ryo 룡 ryong 루 ru
류 ryu 륙 ryuk 륜 ryun 률 ryul 륭 ryung
르 reu 륵 reuk 른 reun 름 reum 릉 reung
리 ri 린 rin 림 rim 립 rip
ㅁ 마 ma
막 mak 만 man 말 mal 망 mang 매 mae
맥 maek 맨 maen 맹 maeng 머 meo 먹 meok
메 me 며 myeo 멱 myeok 면 myeon 멸 myeol
명 myeong 모 mo 목 mok 몰 mol 못 mot
몽 mong 뫼 moe 묘 myo 무 mu 묵 muk
문 mun 물 mul 므 meu 미 mi 민 min
밀 mil
ㅂ 바 ba 박 bak 반 ban 발 bal
밥 bap 방 bang 배 bae 백 baek 뱀 baem
버 beo 번 beon 벌 beol 범 beom 법 beop
벼 byeo 벽 byeok 변 byeon 별 byeol 병 byeong
보 bo 복 bok 본 bon 봉 bong 부 bu
북 buk 분 bun 불 bul 붕 bung 비 bi
빈 bin 빌 bil 빔 bim 빙 bing 빠 ppa
빼 ppae 뻐 ppeo 뽀 ppo 뿌 ppu 쁘 ppeu
삐 ppi
ㅅ 사 sa 삭 sak 산 san 살 sal
삼 sam 삽 sap 상 sang 샅 sat 새 sae
색 saek 생 saeng 서 seo 석 seok 선 seon
설 seol 섬 seom 섭 seop 성 seong 세 se
셔 syeo 소 so 속 sok 손 son 솔 sol
솟 sot 송 song 쇄 swae 쇠 soe 수 su
숙 suk 순 sun 술 sul 숨 sum 숭 sung
쉬 swi 스 seu 슬 seul 슴 seum 습 seup
승 seung 시 si 식 sik 신 sin 실 sil
심 sim 십 sip 싱 sing 싸 ssa 쌍 ssang
쌔 ssae 쏘 sso 쑥 ssuk 씨 ssi
ㅇ 아 a
악 ak 안 an 알 al 암 am 압 ap
앙 ang 앞 ap 애 ae 액 aek 앵 aeng
야 ya 약 yak 얀 yan 양 yang 어 eo
억 eok 언 eon 얼 eol 엄 eom 업 eop
에 e 여 yeo 역 yeok 연 yeon 열 yeol
염 yeom 엽 yeop 영 yeong 예 ye 오 o
옥 ok 온 on 올 ol 옴 om 옹 ong
와 wa 완 wan 왈 wal 왕 wang 왜 wae
외 oe 왼 oen 요 yo 욕 yok 용 yong
우 u 욱 uk 운 un 울 ul 움 um
웅 ung 워 wo 원 won 월 wol 위 wi
유 yu 육 yuk 윤 yun 율 yul 융 yung
윷 yut 으 eu 은 eun 을 eul 음 eum
읍 eup 응 eung 의 ui 이 i 익 ik
인 in 일 il 임 im 입 ip 잉 ing
ㅈ 자 ja 작 jak 잔 jan 잠 jam 잡 jap
장 jang 재 jae 쟁 jaeng 저 jeo 적 jeok
전 jeon 절 jeol 점 jeom 접 jeop 정 jeong
제 je 조 jo 족 jok 존 jon 졸 jol
종 jong 좌 jwa 죄 joe 주 ju 죽 juk
준 jun 줄 jul 중 jung 쥐 jwi 즈 jeu
즉 jeuk 즐 jeul 즘 jeum 즙 jeup 증 jeung
지 ji 직 jik 진 jin 질 jil 짐 jim
집 jip 징 jing 짜 jja 째 jjae 쪼 jjo
찌 jji
ㅊ 차 cha 착 chak 찬 chan 찰 chal
참 cham 창 chang 채 chae 책 chaek 처 cheo
척 cheok 천 cheon 철 cheol 첨 cheom 첩 cheop
청 cheong 체 che 초 cho 촉 chok 촌 chon
총 chong 최 choe 추 chu 축 chuk 춘 chun
출 chul 춤 chum 충 chung 측 cheuk 층 cheung
치 chi 칙 chik 친 chin 칠 chil 침 chim
칩 chip 칭 ching
칩 chip 칭 ching
ㅋ 코 ko 쾌 kwae 크 keu 큰 keun 키 ki
ㅌ 타 ta 탁 tak 탄 tan
탈 tal 탐 tam 탑 tap 탕 tang 태 tae
택 taek 탱 taeng 터 teo 테 te 토 to
톤 ton 톨 tol 통 tong 퇴 toe 투 tu
퉁 tung 튀 twi 트 teu 특 teuk 틈 teum
티 ti
ㅍ 파 pa 판 pan 팔 pal 패 pae
팽 paeng 퍼 peo 페 pe 펴 pyeo 편 pyeon
폄 pyeom 평 pyeong 폐 pye 포 po 폭 pok
표 pyo 푸 pu 품 pum 풍 pung 프 peu
피 pi 픽 pik 필 pil 핍 pip
ㅎ 하 ha
학 hak 한 han 할 hal 함 ham 합 hap
항 hang 해 hae 핵 haek 행 haeng 향 hyang
허 heo 헌 heon 험 heom 헤 he 혀 hyeo
혁 hyeok 현 hyeon 혈 hyeol 혐 hyeom 협 hyeop
형 hyeong 혜 hye 호 ho 혹 hok 혼 hon
홀 hol 홉 hop 홍 hong 화 hwa 확 hwak
환 hwan 활 hwal 황 hwang 홰 hwae 횃 hwaet
회 hoe 획 hoek 횡 hoeng 효 hyo 후 hu
훈 hun 훤 hwon 훼 hwe 휘 hwi 휴 hyu
휼 hyul 흉 hyung 흐 heu 흑 heuk 흔 heun
흘 heul 흠 heum 흡 heup 흥 heung 희 hui
흰 huin 히 hi 힘 him


영어번역 영국현지 번역 서비스

영어번역 분야

영어번역 최고 회사인 이유

세겜컨설팅은 전 세계적인 기업들의 영어번역을 책임지고 있습니다. 주요고객으로 영국의 국영방송 BBC, 영국 일간지 Daily Mirror, 방송장비의 최고봉 Quantel, 영국지방정부 (Bury 및 맨체스터), Sky Sports, 삼성, 현대등이 있으며 이 회사들의 영어번역영어통역을 담당합니다.

이러한 국제적 기업들이 세겜컨설팅을 이용하는 데는 이유가 있습니다. 바로 정확한 번역, 빠른 번역, 원어민 감수, 신뢰성이라 할 수 있습니다. 고객들의 신뢰는 하루 아침에 이루어지지 않습니다. 세겜컨설팅의 꾸준한 노력으로 일구어낸 결과로 세겜의 자세를 대변하고 있습니다.

이제 검증되지 않은 번역회사에 번역을 의뢰하지 마시고, 대기업들에 의해 검증된 영국현지 영어번역 영어통역 전문기업 세겜컨설팅과 상의하십시오. 전문적인 번역사들이 프로젝트 매니저와 함께 당신의 번역을 책임지겠습니다.


영어번역 영국현지 번역 서비스


영어번역 분야

  • IT 및 컴퓨터 분야 번역: 컴퓨터 전반적인 지식을 가진 전문적인 번역사들이 전자, 반도체, 하드웨어, 소프트웨어, 데이타베이스, 프로그램 매뉴얼 및 사용자 설명서, Help File 및 기타 관련자료를 번역합니다. 특히 용어의 일관성을 보장하여 드리고 책임지고 기일내에 번역하여 드립니다.
  • 연예 및 영상물 분야 번역 : 영화, 비디오, DVD, Blue-Ray, 각종영상물, 다큐멘터리, 인터뷰등의 번역을 제공합니다. 모든 비디오 포맷을 지원합니다.
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  • 예술 및 문화 분야 번역: 예술에 관련된 교육자료, 서적등의 번역 서비스와 문학 작품, 예술 및 문화 행사, 공연 관련 자료등에 대한 번역 서비스도 제공합니다.
  • 취업 및 유학 분야 번역: 자기소개서나 이력서 및 생활기록부, 성적표등과 같이 유학에 필요한 서류를 번역하여 드립니다. 또한 에세이, 논문, 이민, 비자 관련서류등도 번역 서비스합니다.
  • 웹사이트 및 홈페이지 번역: 공공기관, 기업, 협회, 개인, 단체의 웹페이지 및 블로그를 번역하여 드립니다. 전문적인 웹사이트 기술에 대한 지식이 있는 번역가가 책임집니다. Content Management System이나 전통적인 HTML 문서나 상관없이 번역을 책임집니다.
  • 비즈니스분야 번역: 중요한 사업계획서 및 제안서, 매매 계약서, 회사 브로셔, 상품 카탈로그등을 번역하며 특히 중요한 회의 프리젠테이션도 번역하고 있습니다. 또한 각종보도자료, 회사홍보자료, 회사소개서도 번역 서비스 제공합니다.
  • 기술분야 번역: 전기, 전자, 자동차, 중공업, 항만, 조선등의 매뉴얼과 사용자 설명서등을 번역하는 서비스를 제공합니다.
  • 공학분야 번역: 전자공학, 전기공학, 건설공학, 설비공학, 건축공학, 토목공학, 항공공학, 기계공학, 화학공학, 재료공학등의 분야의 전문가들이 번역을 책임집니다.
  • 과학분야 번역: 수학, 물리학, 화학, 생물학과 같은 분야의 학술논문, 학위논문 혹은 보고서, 기술문서, 연구자료등을 번역하여 드립니다.
  • 의학분야 번역: 의학, 약학, 한의학, 생명공학, 의료기기 분야 보고서, 논문, 학술발표 자료, 파워포인트 프리젠테이션 자료등을 번역하고 있습니다.
  • 특허 번역: 각 분야의 전문가이며 특허 번역에 대한 지식이 있는 전문적인 영어번역가가 책임지고 번역해 드립니다. 특히 전문용어를 알고 특허에 사용되는 문형을 파악하여 제대로 된 번역을 해 드려 고객의 특허 등록에 유리하게 작용하는 장점이 있습니다.

번역 마감일과 번역 의뢰의 양, 번역 난이도에 따라 가격이 달라질 수 있습니다. 자세한 사항은 견적문의를 통해 알려드립니다.

Three Essential Aspects You Need to Know When You Hire Korean Translation Services

Three Essential Aspects of Top Quality Korean Translation Services

Before You Hire a Korean Translation Company

There are three important aspects to consider when you hire Korean translation services.

  1. Translator Competence
    Korean translators’ quality and performance is essential to accurate Korean translation, which is a key to a successful project. In case of Korean to English translation, a native English translator who is fluent in Korea is better.
    In case of English to Korean translation, a native Korean is recommended. All Korean translators in Segem Consulting are bilingual translators. Moreover, they have a deep understanding of both Western and Korean culture. Because of this we are confident that we provide not only accurate translations but also natural translations.
  2. Continuing Quality
    Segem Consulting’s top priority is translation quality, speed and consistency. Simple quality translation services are not enough for us – we provide quality translation services continually so that our repeat customers are happy with us all the time.
    As your content is important to us, we do our best to deliver accurate and complete translations. Because of our consistency in Korean translation quality, we have many repeat customers. Whether it is a technical translation or a simple personal letter, we deliver consistent quality.
  3. Team Continuity
    We use computer aided translation system so that we can deliver the best results possible. By using this system, we manage to maintain team continuity. It is true some Korean translators come and go. Therefore, using a consistent terms are not always possible to conventional Korean translation companies.
    Segem Consulting avoids this problem, which can cause inconsistent Korean translation results, by using a consistent memory translation strategy. We ensure that the best results are delivered to our customers.

Why Segem Consulting’s Korean Translation Services Are Best

Segem Consulting’s, the Best Korean Translation Services, can:

  • meet your deadline and budget.
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Call us now on 44+(0)7590-411402 to talk to our experienced Korean translators.

Three Essential Aspects You Need to Know When You Hire Korean Translation Services

Korean Software Localization and Translation

Korean Translation vs Localization

Korean translation is the process of converting written text or spoken words to another language. It requires that the full meaning of the source material be accurately rendered into the target language. In case of Korean to English translation, the source language is Korean and the target language is English. For English to Korean translation, the source is English language and the target is Korean language. They both require special attention to cultural nuance and style.

The difference between Korean translation and Korean localization is:

“Translation is only one of the activities in localization; in addition to translation, a localization project includes many other tasks such as project management, software engineering, testing, and desktop publishing.”

In localization, there is stronger emphasis placed on translation tools and technology compared to the traditional Korean translation industry.


Korean Market Developments

Because the Korean localization industry is growing, on average by 30% annually, the need for Korean localization specialists is more obvious than ever. Translators need a greater knowledge of computer technology, and engineers with better language skills. Many translation schools and universities recognize this market potential and are now offering localization studies.
Many software publishers are moving towards “total outsourcing” models, where all globalization and Korean localization-related activities are outsourced to special language agencies.
When you company needs Korean localization, we are here to help you. We provide a complete solution for your localization project requirements.


8 Essential Aspects of Korean Localization Specialists

Korean translators working for Korean localization projects in Segem Consulting have the following skills or qualifications:

  • Native Korean speaker
  • Advanced knowledge of computer applications
  • Experience using computer aided translation tools, e.g. translation memory
  • Subject matter knowledge, e.g. expertise in financial or medical field
  • Professional approach to schedules, budgets, and quality of deliverables
  • Basic knowledge of terminology management


Korean Localization Projects

The following components are found in traditional Korean localization projects:

  1. Software: application, sample files, CBT/demo
  2. Online Help: compiled, HTML/web
  3. Documentation: printed, online, collateral

Today, localization projects increasingly include additional support material, such as web-based technical support data. In some cases, software products are partially localized for certain markets. For example, a software publisher may decide to translate the software and not documentation, or only parts of the complete documentation set, based on sales and marketing requirements and return-on-investment expectations. A common choice for non-desktop applications is to translate the installation guide and getting started guide, and to include administrator or reference manuals in English.

For each Korean localization projects, we have a special Korean localization manager whose tasks include:

  • Organizing kick-off meetings for new projects.
  • Defining processes and contact points for Korean localization.
  • Distributing project materials and guidelines.
  • Overseeing overall project progress, budget, and contracts.
  • Coordinating post-localization release activities, such as CD creation, printing or electronic distribution.
  • Assisting in selecting the right localization tools.
  • Managing or coordinating project teams.

Contact us for a free quotation of your Korean translation and localization projects.

Instant Korean Translation – Is It a Dream?

Korean translation is many things. It is insufficient, excessive, contingent, temporally bound, iterative, different. It is, as many people in the post- structuralistic tradition have acknowledged, impossible, and at the same time necessary. It is not – can never be – perfect, instant or redundant. And yet, as I will argue here, all three of these  qualifiers are associated with the way in which document ‘dreams’ translation. Let me begin with two apparently throwaway remarks.

The first remark is one made by Kim and Lee, famous Korean translation scholars, in relation to the difficulty of translating Korean language, which are notoriously often the objects of recreation and sometimes misinterpretation.

‘Perfect translation’, they say, ‘is in the best of circumstances a virtual impossibility’. The over-determined nature of this statement invites attention. The reference to a ‘perfect Korean translation’ is taken from Don Lee. In After Babel, Lee describes the ‘perfect act of Korean translation’ as a translation which adds nothing to and subtracts nothing from the source text:

A ‘perfect’ act of translation would be one of total synonymity. It would presume an interpretation so precisely exhaustive as to leave no single unit in the source text –phonetic, grammatical, semantic, contextual – out of complete account, and yet so calibrated as to have added nothing in the way of paraphrase, explication or variant.

Lee speaks in the conditional, which paradoxically has the effect of making the impossible ‘perfect’ Korean translation more accessible than if he had simply used the present. Shohat and Stam rightly observe that a ‘core of mutual incommensurability’ will always remain. Korean translation and Korean interpreting is the same in this respect.

Korean language translation should become a ‘dynamic process of cultural recoding, a change in the form of linguistic energy’. And yet, their triple rhetorical return to the scene of ‘perfect translation’ in the ‘best of circumstances’, which is only a ‘virtual impossibility’, not an absolute one, testifies to the resilience of the concept of the ideal translation which will convey the text, the whole text and nothing but the text.

This could seem rather quibbling, but for the extent to which Shohat and Stam’s remark plays into a deeply rooted dream of perfect Korean translation which has been recurrent through literary criticism, if less so in translation studies since the 1970s. Discussing translations of Ulysses, the Joyce scholar Fritz Senn remarks wistfully that ‘no translation can be expected to give us the full orchestration of Joyce’s novel’. He goes on to suggest, again by means of a wistful conditional, that ‘it would be a unique stroke of luck if a Korean translator could achieve the same depth and richness’ as the original English document. Senn does not suspect for one minute that the ‘perfect’ translation of Joyce exists (few know better than he that it cannot, and should not), but the concept acts as a kind of tertium comparationis for his reflections as it does for Lee’s. For Lee, the perfect Korean language translation is ‘in practice … possible neither at the stage of interpretation nor at that of Korean linguistic transfer and restatement’.

The key phrase is ‘in practice’. In theory, even if not in ‘theory’, the perfect translation is alive and well. Even the recognition of its impossibility, rehearsed here, only reinforces its hold on the imagination.

The second remark which struck me was made by Shin on the commentary to He Lies Here (2004), a novel whose plot centres on the kidnap of a child in Korea and the revenge meted out by her bodyguard. In the course of the commentary Shin describes the research he carried out for the Korean novel, which included meeting a Korean kidnap survivor and her mother. An interpreter was involved in the discussion, because the mother did not speak English:

it was just such a traumatic experience just sitting in the same room and the mom didn’t speak English, she spoke Korean language with a Korean interpreter, but I just, I didn’t have to listen to the interpreter, I just looked into the mom’s eyes and sat and talked to her daughter. The imaginary ideal of a perfect translation is what makes Korean-language-oriented translation approaches so resilient in everyday discourse, even in the face of a generalised shift by theoreticians of Korean translation towards functional approaches whose main criterion is acceptability to a target audience.

Its obverse is the lack of need for translation – not, as one might think, in the form of multilingual competence, but in the form of the moment of instantaneous human communication which transcends language, and which Shin recalls in his description of a traumatised woman whose words need no interpreting because he can understand everything he needs from her just by looking at her face.

Aleida Assmann has considered some of the manifestations of ‘visions of universalism’ in which ‘the shattered unity of Korean language is restored’. Though the search for a real ‘perfect language’ is now a matter of history, Assmann’s statement that ‘we are no longer in the grip of these visions’ seems rather a sweeping one. The dream of a perfect language, Benjamin’s ‘reine Sprache’, has been displaced, rather than dismissed.

We hear its echo in a range of discourses, from K Kim dismissing the difficulties of working with Korean translators in several languages as insignificant, to the texts of novels such as The Korean Interpreter. For Kim’s The Korean Interpreter, the tagline used for one poster was ‘The Truth Needs No Translation’ – a rather surprising statement, given the novel’s ostensible subject matter, but in fact one which well reflects the (un)importance of interpreting to the novel’s narration. The King and Sarang, released three years after Lost in Translation and written in the same city, alludes epi-textually to its predecessor through the tagline: ‘On the streets of Seoul, speed needs no translation’, positioning itself as a supra-linguistic kinetic spectacle in opposition to Sofia Coppola’s existential Korean translated novel.

Korean Website Translation Services

Segem Consulting offers Website Translation Services, from Korean to English and from English to Korean.

English to Korean Translation | Translate English to Korean

Like software, websites and HTML documents should be designed and developed with Korean language support in mind. Korean translation of websites implies developing the site content to simplify hosting and displaying of Korean localized information. This applied to graphics, placement of text, and local content.

Because website internationalization is very much integrated with localization (translation), the process of publishing websites in Korean language is usually referred to as website globalization. A well globalized and internationalized website allows Korean localization services to focus on translating the content, as opposed to processing wide range of complex file formats and types.

If you company is not ready for simple Korean translation because of the problems mentioned above, we can help you in terms of optimizing your website for translation.

In short, our website localization process can be summarized as follow;

  1. Choose a website platform, server, and software palette that supports Korean language.
  2. Evaluate the site architecture to determine what should be changed to facilitate the localization process - Korean to English translation and English to Korean translation.
  3. Identify which parts of the site can be translated and which parts must be rewritten specific for South Korea – local content versus global content.
  4. Create a bilingual website structure or content database with language folders and navigation system.
  5. Choose a toolset, for example combining a bilingual content management system with tracking tools and translation memory.
  6. Develop a site upload and maintenance plan.

After these initial steps, Segem Consulting starts to translate the website content, or create Korean content.

It is not unusual website changing frequently, both from a content and design perspective. Web pages are often generated dynamically using templates, scripts, and databases. Maintaining website in English and Korean at the same time can be tedious process if it is not well thought-out from the beginning.

For more information on multilingual website development, visit Localization and Internationalization web page from the World Wide Web Consortium at

Korean Translation of English Comments in Films by Korean Translators

Korean Translation of Comments – Introduction

Regarding Korean translation, I will investigate to what extent linguistic simplification affects the domain of politeness phenomena in subtitles, focusing on the Korean translation of compliments, which are culturally-constrained speech acts. The process of simplification at work in subtitles supposedly concerns the elements that can be recovered through non-linguistic communicative channels or those that are less directly connected with the performance of the referential function and are instead linked to the area of expressivity, for example, terms of address, discourse markers, politeness formulae, reformulations and the like.

Compliments are speech acts that are primarily aimed at maintaining, enhancing or supporting the addressee’s face, which is very difficult to translate from English to Korean. More specifically, compliments are used for a variety of reasons: to express admiration or approval of someone’s work/appearance/taste; to establish/ confirm/maintain solidarity; to replace greetings/gratitude/apologies/ congratulations; to soften face-threatening acts such as apologies, requests and criticism; to open and sustain conversation; to reinforce desired behaviour.

Compliment-giving and responding behaviour are used to negotiate social identities and relations. Consequently, inappropriate choice of responses can lead to a loss of face. On the basis of several socio-pragmatic studies of Korean translation, it is evident that speech acts are subject to cultural and sociolinguistic variations. So, apart from macroscopic cultural and linguistic differences in the giving and accepting of compliments, some interesting changes can also be observed across age and gender.

After briefly describing compliments, this chapter investigates how they are translated in the subtitled Korean translated DVD versions of various British/US films - Bend it like Beckham (Gurinder Chadha, 2002); Sliding Doors (Peter Howitt, 1998); Mickey Blue Eyes (Kelly Makin, 1999); Philadelphia (Jonathan Demme, 1993); Shallow Hal (Farrelly Brothers, 2002); There’s Something about Mary (Farrelly Brothers, 1998); Tootsie (Sydney Pollack, 1982) and if/ how what is expunged can be recovered from the non-linguistic communicative channels.

Korean Translation of Compliments in Discourse

Even though compliments in English can serve a plurality of functions in different contexts, there is widespread agreement on their nature as ‘social lubricants’, that is, strategies that aim to establish or reaffirm common ground, mutuality or social solidarity. Often compliments – or the compliment event if we also mean to include the response to the compliment – are quite independent from the linguistic environment in which they occur, i.e. Korean translation of English films, although they are frequently related to the topic of the exchange.

They can also be an unrelated insertion in a conversation, a sort of aside comment which has no evident link with Korean translation. This independence makes them suitable tools to use in opening sequences such as greetings or in thanks.

웹사이트 번역 | 영어-한국어 번역 | 영어번역

웹사이트 번역은 다른 말로 웹사이트 로칼라이제이션 (localization)이라고 합니다. 단순히 정확한 번역만 요구되는 것이 아니라 한 나라의 문화적 배경을 알아야 하고 웹사이트의 기술적인 측면도 알아야 하기 때문에 단순히 번역이라는 용어 대신 국지화 (로칼라이제이션) 라는 단어를 사용합니다.

한국어 웹사이트를 영어로 번역하거나 영문 웹사이트, 영어 웹사이트를 한국어로 번역

한국어 웹사이트를 영어로 번역하거나 영문 웹사이트를 한국어로 번역하는 것은 요즘은 구글 번역기를 사용하여 손쉽게 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 이런 기계 번역기를 사용하여 번역을 하는 것은 어디까지나 대충의 의미를 파악하고자 하는 경우에 사용하는 것이 좋습니다.

구글 번역기를 사용하여 번역하는 경우, 어설픈 번역이 많고 이러한 완전하지 않은 번역으로 웹사이트 번역을 한다는 것은 귀사가 귀사의 웹사이트를 하찮게 생각한다는 인상을 주기 때문입니다.

비즈니스 웹사이트는 귀사 비즈니스의 얼굴입니다. 그러한 얼굴이 이상한 번역문으로 꽉 차있다고 생각해 보십시오. 이상하게 번역된 웹사이트를 방문했다고 생각해 보십시오.

그런 경우, 머 이런 웹사이트가 다 있어 하고 금방 나오게 될 것입니다. 귀사의 웹사이트도 마찬가지입니다.

인터넷 연구조사 결과 인터넷 사용자들은 대부분 프로페셔널하지 못한 웹사이트를 방문했을 경우, 그 웹사이트를 운영하는 회사가 프로페셔널하지 못하다고 생각한다고 합니다. 이상한 번역문으로 가득 찬 웹사이트는 자신의 회사 이미지가 프로페셔널하지 못하다고 광고하는 것과 같습니다. 차라리 번역문을 빼는 것이 더 좋습니다.

웹사이트 번역은 기술적인 면과 문화적인 면 두 가지가 다 고려되어야 합니다.

기술적인 면은 웹사이트가 정적인 html 코드로 되어 있는 경우, 텍스트 코드만 빼어 번역을 하고 또한 캐릭터 인코딩도 알맞게 설정하며 링크 및 기타 화면에 보이는 모든 단어들이 빠짐없이 올바르게 번역되는 것을 의미합니다. 또한 flash나 java applet 혹은 javascript등에 들어가는 문장들도 그대로 번역되어야 합니다.

또한 요즘 CMS나 블로깅 플랫폼으로 대표되는 동적인 웹사이트 번역도 자신 있게 해드립니다. 랭귀지 파일로 번역이 가능한 줌라 (Joomla)나 워드프레스 (WordPress) 기반의 웹사이트뿐 아니라 기타 php 파일의 번역도 제공해 드리며 asp 번역도 지원합니다.

CSS 파일 사용에 관하여서도 알맞은 폰트를 선정해 드리며 이는 문화적인 측면과 관계가 있습니다. 왜냐하면 영미권의 문화적 배경을 고려하여 웹사이트와 어울리며 회사 이미지를 가장 잘 대표할 수 있는 폰트를 선정해 드리기 때문입니다. 이를 전문적인 용어로 Typography라 하며 세겜컨설팅에서는 영미권 문화에 알맞은 폰트를 전문적으로 지원하고 있습니다.

이러한 기술적인 모든 측면을 고려하여 세겜컨설팅에서는 전문적인 웹 지식이 있는 번역가들이 책임지고 번역하여 드립니다.

Typography를 설명하며 웹사이트 번역의 문화적 측면을 언급했습니다. 웹사이트 번역은 단순히 정확한 번역만이 요구되는 것이 아니라 기술적 문화적 측면이 함께 고려되어야 합니다.

한국에서 배운 교과서적인 영어표현만으로 어떻게 영미권 사람들의 마음을 사로잡는 Copywrite가 나올 수 있겠습니까? 웹사이트에 매우 중요한 위치를 차지하고 있는 콘텐트에 회사 이미지와 웹사이트 내용을 함께 담아내는 것은 단순한 번역의 차원을 넘어서는 일입니다.

현재 어떤 표현들이 유행하고 있는지, 대중이 어떤 표현을 좋아하는지, 실제로 문법적으로는 맞지만 쓰지 않는 표현들은 어떤 것인지, 십대가 쓰는 표현은 어떤 것인지, 중년계층이 쓰는 표현은 어떤 것인지, 상류층에서는 어떤 단어들을 쓰는지 등은 한국 문화 속에서 생활하는 번역가들이 알기 힘든 것들입니다.

세겜컨설팅의 번역 팀은 한국어와 영어를 동시에 구사하는 bilingual 번역가들입니다. 영어를 한국어로 번역할 때는 한국어에 더 능통한 번역가, 예를 들어 중학교나 고등학교를 마치고 영국으로 유학을 와서 대학 교육까지 마친 번역가들을 사용합니다. 한국어를 영어로 번역할 때는 영어에 더 능통한 번역가들을 사용합니다. 이 경우 대부분 영국에서 어릴 때부터 자란 한국인들이 번역을 맡게 됩니다.

이유는 간단합니다. 지금까지의 번역이론과 현장에 다져진 경험에 의하면 번역하여 쓰는 문장이 자신의 모국어가 되어야 하기 때문입니다.

세겜컨설팅은 정확한 번역이론에 항상 바탕을 두고 번역하고 있으며 또한 풍부한 경험을 소지한, 전문통역 및 번역 교육과정을 이수한 번역 팀이 언제나 준비되어 있습니다.

이제 웹사이트 번역전문번역 업체인 세겜컨설팅에 맡기십시오.

Verbal Translating English into Korean – A Closer Look at the Translation of Spoken Language

Research on the linguistic aspects of verbal translation has mainly focussed on the Korean translation of general aspects such as synchronisation, social and geographic variation and transfer errors. Korean researchers have also investigated morphosyntactic and lexical phenomena of the spoken Korean language in Korean translated or interpreted films, although systematic quantitative analyses are rarely available. Little is thus known about the degree to which the spoken Korean language filters into translated Korean film scripts, with some studies suggesting in fact that dubbed languages are placed closer to a ‘neutral’, uniform (formal) standard as they fail to portrait important areas of sociolinguistic variation.

In a different framework, for the past 20 years, Korean linguists have carried out research on spoken language, thus outlining a profile of spontaneous oral Korean and providing quantitative data on crucial features such as syntactic complexity and marked word orders. Investigations have been extended to the so-called ‘simulated spoken Korean’ of Korean films and TV series.

A quantitative analysis comparing original Korean productions to Korean translations from English has been carried out, comparing episodes taken from US and Korean TV series. The results show systematic simplifications in translations as opposed to original productions and a shift toward a ‘neutral’ standard Korean. Finally, a descriptive analysis has been conducted on the Korean of contemporary original TV series, which shows the filtering of many features of spontaneous spoken Korean into this type of simulated oral language. There is thus ground for systematic comparisons between contemporary dubbed Korean and both spontaneous spoken Korean and original simulated spoken Korean.

I start from the assumption that in translated as well as in original film dialogue similarities to real dialogue exchanges must be present if viewers are to be drawn into the fictional world portrayed on  the screen. To which degree such truthfulness is achieved and, more feasibly, which features are involved deserve quantitative and qualitative in-depth investigation in line with recent approaches within  both linguistics and translation studies. As already pointed out, by stressing a shift toward the written mode, neutralisation and increase in formality level, research in dubbing has often undermined orality in translated films. On the other hand, similarities to the spoken language are at least as relevant as differences for a full characterisation of dubbed languages and a better understanding of the underlying translation processes.

Drawing on such premises, it is hypothesised that the Korean of films translated from English is placed within a specific sociolinguistic space of Korean, with some spoken features being used as carriers of orality, not randomly but with a degree of consistency and regularity.

A quantitative overview is presented of selected phenomena of spoken Korean typically associated with the constraints and situational factors of face-to-face communication as they are reflected in five Korean translations of widely known US and British films: Dead Man Walking (Tim Robbins, 1995), Secrets and Lies (Mike Leigh, 1996), Sliding Doors (Peter Howitt, 1998), Notting Hill (Roger Michell, 1999) and Finding Forrester (Gus Van Sant, 2000). Results are discussed primarily in terms of the comparison with the norms of spontaneous spoken Korean and, when possible, simulated spoken Korean, thus providing an initial step for wider as well as more detailed analyses.